News
Home News About Us Adopting Kittens Singapura Devon Rex Your Letters Guest Book Links Show Results Adults Available A Cats Diet Lykoi

 

"Where Beauty & Enchantment Are Created"

Web Changes

This is where we'll announce the most recent additions to our web site. If you've visited us before and want to know what's changed, take a look here first.


NEWS FLASH :

We also have the Lykoi (werewolf cat) arriving in 2017 from the USA, many thanks must go to Dr Johnny Gobble DVM & his wife Brittney Gobble for allowing us to join the team of breeders to further develop this unusual & natural breed of cat. which I am so looking forward to promoting here in Australia. The Gobbles are the founders of this breed.


 

 

Interesting reading on early

 desexing of kittens:

 

"Early Desexing of Kittens?" # Winn Foundation Health Article by

 Susan Little DVM

While it may seem that interest in early spay/neuter is a recent phenomenon, it has not only been talked about, but it has

 been practiced for over 25 years in North America. Early age altering refers to spays and neuters done between the age of

 6 and 14 weeks. Altering pets between 5 and 7 months of age was established by tradition rather than for any specific

 medical reason. Years ago, when safe pediatric anesthetic techniques were not available, waiting until a patient was older

 increased the safety of surgery. But we no longer need to delay altering for this reason


People working to decrease the problem of surplus dogs and cats in the United States pioneered the idea of early altering.

 While surgical sterilization remains the most effective means of population control, delaying the surgery long enough for

sexual maturity to occur defeats the purpose. Animal shelters advocate mandatory altering, but many adopted animals

 either are never altered or have at least one litter first.



Over the years, the safety of early altering has been questioned, mainly by veterinarians who may be unfamiliar with the

 surgical and anesthetic techniques required for pediatric patients. As well, concerns that early altering could increase the

 incidence of feline lower urinary tract disease, could affect skeletal development, and affect behaviour have been voiced.

 These concerns have largely been laid to rest by many studies, and early altering is becoming more widespread and

available. A study recently published by researchers at the University of Florida found no significant differences in the

 physical and behavioral characteristics of cats altered at 7 weeks of age compared to those altered at 7 months of age.

Very important work has been done by Drs. Michael Aronsohn and Alicia Faggella at the Massachusetts SPCA on the

 anesthetic and surgical techniques for early altering of dogs and cats. In 1993, two papers were published outlining their

 work on the early altering of hundreds of kittens between the age of 6 and 14 weeks. They evaluated several anesthetic

 protocols and made recommendations for safe handling and anesthesia in patients of this age. Some small changes to

 surgical technique are necessary for patients in this age group. As well, these young patients must be handled a bit

 differently both before, during, and after surgery. The changes in surgical protocol are simple and easy to carry out, and

 the experience of these veterinarians with early altering is overwhelmingly positive.



As cat breeders, we must do our part to curtail the serious issue of surplus animals. Many of us work in breed rescue

 programs and give our time and expertise to shelters. We can ensure that our own kittens not destined for breeding

 programs will never reproduce by practicing early altering. Early altering is a safe and effective means of ensuring we do

 not unwittingly add to the burden of unwanted pets.

Further information - refer to the website for The Winn Feline Foundation

 

"A Winn Feline Foundation Report on Early Spay/Neuter in the Cat"

 

# A progress report on a study funded by The Winn Feline Foundation - Developmental and Behavioral Effects of Prepubertal

 Gonadectomy. Mark S. Bloomberg, DVM, MS; W.P. Stubbs, DVM; D.F. Senior, BVSc; Thomas J. Lane, BS, DVM; University

 of Florida at Gainesville. Funded by the Winn Feline Foundation, February 1991. Continuation funded - Summary prepared

by Diana Cruden, Ph.D.

Are fears of negative side effects of early neutering warranted?

Background and medical issues including a summary of an ongoing Winn Foundation funded project to evaluate the long

 term effects of early altering.



The concept of early spaying and neutering (e.g. before the animal is sexually mature) is not a new one. In the early

 1900's, early neutering was the norm and it was not until much later that questions were raised about the negative side

 effects of such a procedure. Today most of the experts acknowledge that there has not been enough scientific information

 available about the most appropriate age to neuter a pet. Until recently, there was no research data that either supported

 or disproved the idea that neutering dogs and cats at ages younger than five to eight months was deleterious.

There is, in fact, little scientific basis for selecting this age group as the most appropriate time for neutering. Indeed, one

investigator points out that many veterinarians have been practicing early neutering for years, since there is an incredible

 range of ages when puppies and kittens reach sexual maturity. Large animal practitioners have long practiced early

 neutering on their livestock and consider it not only acceptable, but desirable in many cases.

Even before concerns for the burgeoning population of unwanted pets raised our collective consciousness, there were many

 scientifically documented reasons to spay and castrate.

Spayed females are protected against mammary cancer and uterine infections. In males, castration reduces the risk of

 testicular cancer and enlargement of the prostate and related infections. From the pet owners point of view, the spayed or

 castrated pet is a much better companion. They are less aggressive and more affectionate than their unaltered

counterparts. Since they are not driven by the urge to reproduce, they are less likely to roam and fight.

 

Controlled studies into the short- and long-term effects

Controlled studies into the short- and long-term effects of early neutering have been sadly lacking until recently. While there

 had been numerous anecdotal reports of early spaying and neutering, these cases were generally uncontrolled from the

 scientific viewpoint. Most reported cases were random bred, unrelated animals from a variety of backgrounds and no

 attempt was made to control for these variations. There have been few university based studies in this area. M.A. Herron

 of Texas A&M reported in 1972 that neutering before sexual maturity had relatively little effect on the diameter of the

 urethra in male cats.

Studies have more recently been conducted at Angell Memorial Hospital in Boston, the College of Veterinary Medicine at the

 University of Minnesota, and the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences at the University of Florida.

 

The Florida research project

The Florida project, begun in 1991 and completed in 1992, was funded by the Winn Feline Foundation in conjunction with the

 American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). A serious attempt was made in this study to limit background influences

 and genetic variation.

The kittens were bred especially for the project and litter mates were divided among the three groups. The queens were

 bred and housed in quarantined facilities since both pre- and post-natal nutrition and other factors can contribute to the

 ultimate size, weight, and overall health of the kittens. Dr. Mark Bloomberg indicates that although long-term follow-up

 results are incomplete, the initial results are extremely positive. Prior to undertaking the Winn Foundation study, Dr

. Bloomberg had completed a similar study in dogs. Animals involved in that study have now been followed for over five

 years, with no negative side effects reported. In the Winn Foundation study, there were a total of 31 domestic shorthair

 kittens from 7 litters born on the Gainesville campus.

The kittens were divided into three groups:

bullet

 Group 1 (11 kittens) were neutered or spayed at 7 weeks of age.

 

bullet

 Group 2 (11 kittens) were neutered or spayed at 7 months.

 

bullet

 Group 3 (the control group of 9 kittens) were not neutered until maturity and after the completion of the first phase of the

 study at 12 months.

The investigators reported that the surgical procedures in the Group 1 kittens were straightforward and uncomplicated, and

 that the kittens recovered even more rapidly than the Group 2 kittens and Group 3 cats. Dr. Bloomberg notes that although

 there is very little material on pediatric anesthesia in animals, the pediatric patient in human medicine is generally

 considered to be a very good surgical candidate and there is no reason why this should not also be true for dogs and cats.



The major concerns in pediatric surgery are:

bullet

 preventing hypothermia (maintaining body heat);

 

bullet 

utilizing proper doses of anesthetic agents (since the respiratory centres are not as well developed in the pediatric

patient); and maintaining proper blood glucose.

 

 

 

The investigators did not fast the pediatric patients as long as adult patients and administered small amounts of Karo syrup

 prior to induction of anesthesia as a precaution. It should be noted that due to the rapid recovery of the pediatric patient,

 the common practice of reducing anesthesia during final stages of the surgery was modified.

Critics have claimed several possible detrimental side effects from early neutering. It is commonly believed that neutered

 animals are less active and more prone to obesity than unaltered animals. It was also suggested that neutering at an early

 age would stunt normal growth. In male cats in particular, it was feared that early castration would affect the development

 of the urinary tract and lead to an increased incidence of cystitis or urinary obstruction. Concerns have also been raised as

 to the effect of early neutering on behaviour, food consumption and dietary requirements, etc. The investigators attempted

 to answer most of these questions by evaluating several parameters in the three groups of kittens. In particular, they

 looked at weight and body composition (i.e., percent of body fat); bone length and the age of physeal closure (the age

when long bone growth stops); behaviour; food consumption; development of the urinary tract; and the development of

 secondary sexual characteristics and degree of sexual maturity.

The results of the comparisons of weight showed some differences between the three groups. Males weighed consistently

 more than females, but this was uniform in all groups. The studies of body composition and body fat indicated that Group 1

 (neutered at 7 weeks) and Group 2 (neutered at 7 months) were identical and were generally fatter than Group 3

 (neutered at 12 months, after they were sexually mature). Investigators point out that by 12 months, the male cats in

 Group 3 were already exhibiting the normal adult male characteristics of decreased weight and the development of jowls,

 which accounts for some of the differences. It has also been noted that in the course of follow-up, the differences between

 the weight in cats from Group 1 and 2 and Group 3 are becoming less apparent. All these cats have been placed in selected

 and supervised pet homes and are more active than they were in the University facilities. A three-year follow-up exam was

 to be conducted in May of 1994.

Observations:

Growth rates

There was generally no difference in food consumption between the three groups other than the differences between males

 and females, which were consistent in all groups. There was no difference observed in the growth rates in all three groups,

 although the males grew faster in all groups. Increased long bone length was observed in both males and females in

 Groups 1 and 2. This appeared to be due to the fact that physeal closing (closure of the bone growth plate) was delayed in

 Groups 1 & 2. This explains why cats neutered and spayed as kittens are frequently larger (longer and taller) than

 unaltered cats or cats altered later in life. This seems to be particularly true for males.

Behavioural differences

In terms of behaviour, after 7 months, the cats in Group 3 were noticeably less affectionate and more aggressive prior to

 altering than the cats in Groups 1 and 2. Contrary to popular opinion, neutered animals were as active as their unaltered

 age mates.

Urinary tract development, sexual characteristics

Observations of urinary tract development showed no differences between the three groups other than the differences

 related to sex and these were consistent across all groups.

The investigators measured the diameter of the urethra in the male kittens only and found no differences between the

 groups. Concerns have been raised that early neutering would result in smaller diameters in the urinary tract, resulting in

 an increased incidence of cystitis and related problems. This does not appear to be the case. The main differences observed

 between the groups occurred in the comparison of secondary sex characteristics. Males were examined for differences in

 the development of the penis and prepuce (skin covering the penis), as well as for the development of penile spines. The

 penile spines were absent in Group 1, smaller than normal in Group 2, and normally developed in Group 3. In the

 examination of the female kittens, investigators found that the vulvas were more infantile in Groups 1 and 2 and normal in

 Group 3. None of these differences had any impact on the ability to catheterize the kittens. Concerns that development of

 the urinary tract might be arrested or impaired by early spaying and neutering proved unsupported.

 

FEEDING YOUR CAT:

 KNOW THE BASICS OF FELINE

 NUTRITION.

Lisa A. Pierson, DVM

 

Diet is the brick and mortar of health.  This web page lays out some often-ignored principles of feline nutrition and explains why cats have a better chance at optimal health if they are fed canned food (or a balanced homemade diet) instead of dry kibble that is based on grain. 

Putting a little thought into what you feed your cat(s) can pay big dividends over their lifetime and very possibly help them avoid serious, painful, and costly illnesses.  An increasing number of nutrition-savvy veterinarians, including board-certified veterinary internists, are now strongly recommending the feeding of canned food together with a balanced raw meat diet instead of grain based dry kibble.

The three key negative issues associated with Grain based dry foods are:

1) water content is too low

2) carbohydrate load is too high

3) type of protein - too high in plant-based versus animal-based proteins

In addition, dry food is very heavily processed which includes being subjected to high temperatures for a long time resulting in alteration and destruction of nutrients. 

Dry food is also often contaminated with bacteria, fungal mycotoxins, storage mites/cockroaches and their feces, etc. 

Most people who are concerned about their own nutrition have heard nutritionists say "shop the perimeter of the grocery store."  This statement refers to the push to get humans to focus on fresh food - not overly processed food found in boxes and cans.

Where do you think kibble would reside in this scenario?  Definitely not in the "perimeter"!  There is nothing fresh about this source of food and it certainly does not come close to resembling a bird or a mouse.

Also keep in mind that dry foods are not refrigerated and they sit in warm warehouses, on pet store shelves, and in your cupboards for weeks or months before your pets consume them.  Fats can easily become rancid in this type of environment.

There is no doubt that dry food is responsible for far more intestinal problems, and other diseases, than most veterinarians and cat owners realize.

Common medical problems associated with Grain based dry food

My Cat is Doing Just "Fine" on Normal Dry Food!

 

Every living creature is “fine” until outward signs of a disease process are exhibited. That may sound like a very obvious

and basic statement but if you think about it……

Every cat with a blocked urinary tract was “fine” until they started to strain to urinate and either died from a ruptured

bladder or had to be rushed to the hospital for emergency catheterization.

Every cat on the Feline Diabetes Message Board was “fine” until their owners started to recognize the signs of diabetes.

Every cat with an inflamed bladder (cystitis) was “fine” until they ended up in pain, passing blood in their urine, and

 missing their litter box.

Every cat was "fine" until the feeding of species-inappropriate, hyperallergenic ingredients caught up with him and he

 started to show signs of food intolerance/IBD (inflammatory bowel disease).

Every cat was "fine" until that kidney or bladder stone got big enough to cause clinical signs.

Every cancer patient was “fine” until their tumor grew large enough or spread far enough so that clinical signs were

 observed by the patient.

The point is that diseases 'brew' long before being noticed by the living being.

This is why the statement “but my cat is healthy/fine on dry food” means very little to me because I believe

in preventative nutrition - not locking the barn door after the horse is gone.  I don’t want to end up saying “oops……I

guess he is not so fine now!!" when a patient presents to me with a medical problem that could have been avoided if he

 would have been feed a species-appropriate diet to begin with.

Of course, in order to be on board with the preventative nutrition argument, a person has to understand the following

 facts:

1) All urinary tract systems are much healthier with an appropriate amount of water flowing through them.

Dietary water and urinary tract health

2) Carbohydrates can wreak havoc on cats' blood sugar/insulin balance.

Postprandial glycemia

3) Cats inherently have a low thirst drive and need to consume water *with* their food.  (A cat's normal prey is ~70 -

 75% water - not the very low 5-10% found in dry food.) 

4) Cats are strict carnivores which means they are designed to get their protein from meat/organs – not plants.

Cats Need Animal-Based Protein 

Cats are obligate (strict) carnivores and are very different from dogs in their nutritional needs. What does it mean to be

 an ‘obligate carnivore’?  It means that your cat was built by Mother Nature to get her nutritional needs met by the

 consumption of a large amount of animal-based proteins (meat/organs) and derives much less nutritional support

 from plant-based proteins (grains/vegetables). It means that cats lack specific metabolic (enzymatic) pathways and

 cannot utilize plant proteins as efficiently as animal proteins.

It is very important to remember that not all proteins are created equal.

Proteins derived from animal tissues have a complete amino acid profile.  (Amino acids are the building blocks of

 proteins.  Think of them as pieces of a puzzle.)  Plant-based proteins do not contain the full complement (puzzle pieces)

 of the critical amino acids required by an obligate carnivore.  The quality and composition of a protein (are all of the

puzzle pieces present?) is also referred to as its biological value

Humans and dogs can take the pieces of the puzzle in the plant protein and, from those, make the missing pieces.  Cats

 cannot do this.  This is why humans and dogs can live on a vegetarian diet but cats cannot.  (Note that I

 do not recommend vegetarian diets for dogs.)

Taurine is one of the most important nutrients present in meat but it is missing from plants.  Taurine deficiency will

cause blindness and heart problems in cats.

The protein in dry food, which is often heavily plant-based, is not equal in quality to the protein in canned food, which is meat-based.  The protein in dry food, therefore, earns a lower biological value score.

Because plant proteins are cheaper than meat proteins, pet food companies will have a higher profit margin when using corn, wheat, soy, rice, etc.

Veterinary nutritionists and pet food company representatives will argue that they are smart enough to know *exactly*

 what is missing from a plant in terms of nutrient forms and amounts - nutrients that would otherwise be in a meat-

based diet.  They will then claim that these missing elements are added to their diets to make it complete and balanced

to sustain life in an obligate carnivore.

Does anyone really think that humans are that smart?

This is the kind of arrogance that has led to fatal errors in the past.  Not all that long ago (1980s) cats were going blind

and dying from heart problems due to this arrogance.  It was discovered in the late 1980s that cats are exquisitely

 sensitive to taurine deficiency and our cats were paying dearly for Man straying so far from nature in order to increase

 the profit margin of the pet food manufacturers. 

There are several situations that can lead to a diet being deficient in taurine but one of them is using a diet that relies

 heavily on plants (grains, etc.) as its source of protein.  Instead of lowering their profit margin and going back to nature

 by adding more meat to the diets, the pet food companies simple started supplementing their diets with synthetic

 taurine.

This may be all well and good for this particular problem, but how do we know that Man is not blindly going along

 unaware of other critical nutrients that are missing from a plant-based diet? 

Why are nutritionists so arrogant to think that we can safely stray so far from what a cat is designed by nature to eat?

Also note that synthetic taurine is manufactured from a chemical reaction and all taurine (at least that I know of) comes

out of China.  Given that country's horrible track record with regard to food safety, I certainly would not want to depend

on taurine from China's chemical synthesis to meet my cats' taurine needs.

With regard to the overall protein amounts contained in dry versus canned food, do not be confused by the listing of the

 protein percentages on the packaging.  At first glance, it might appear that the dry food has a higher amount of protein

 than the canned food—but this is not true on a dry matter basis which considers the food minus the water.  Most canned

 foods, when figured on a dry matter basis, have more protein than dry food.  And remember, even if this was not the

 case, the percentage numbers do not tell the whole story. It is the protein’s biological value that is critical.

Let's ask ourselves the following question:  How many cats become ill or die from these species-inappropriate diets yet

 the patient's diet is never even questioned as a possible cause of the illness or death?  We cannot answer that question

definitively but I have no doubt that the answer would be "many".

Do cats survive on these heavily (synthetically) supplemented plant-based diets?  Yes, many of them do.

Do cats thrive on these diets?  No, they do not.

Please pay special attention to the words *survive* versus *thrive* as there is a very big difference between the two

 states of health.

Fresh vs Highly Processed with Synthetic Supplements

There are two basic ways to meet our nutrient needs:

  1. Eat fresh food with a short ingredient list - or at least one that does not resemble a science experiment full of long

  2.  names that are hard to pronounce.

  3. Eat highly processed foods that have had much of their nutrient content destroyed or altered, with food chemists

  4.  'fixing' the deficit with synthetic supplements.  This type of unhealthy diet is consumed under the assumption that

  5. humans know exactly what was destroyed or altered during processing and what needs to be added back and in

  6.  what form and amount. 

Again, Man is simply not that smart.

While canned food is not 'fresh', per se, dry food undergoes a harsher processing.  It has been cooked at very high

 temperatures for a long period of time.  The extensive cooking required to remove most of the water from the food

 (70% moisture reduced to 5-10% moisture) significantly alters the biological value of the protein sources and damages

 other vital nutrients.

Humans then have to guess which nutrients – in what form and amounts – were destroyed by this cooking process and

then try to add them back into the diet.  Occasionally 'real food' is used instead of synthetic supplements but those long

 and hard-to-pronounce names on the ingredient list describe chemically synthesized nutrients. 

Given that Man will never be as smart as nature – we will never know every detail of a cat’s normal prey - it is obvious

 that there is a risk when greed cause humans to stray so far from a cat’s natural diet.

 

We Are Feeding Cats Too Many Carbohydrates

Note:  I have stopped using the term "grain-free" since it has become somewhat meaningless.  Many companies (e.g.,

 Blue Buffalo) tout that their products are "grain free" but then they just load up the food with high carbohydrate

 ingredients like potatoes and peas which are not grains but still contribute a significant carb load (and plant-based

 protein) to the food.  The "grain-free" descriptive has become very misleading.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

In their natural setting, cats—whose unique biology makes them true carnivores--would not consume the high level of

carbohydrates (grains, potatoes, peas, etc.) that are in the dry foods (and some canned foods) that we routinely feed

them. You would never see a wild cat chasing down a herd of biscuits running across the plains of Africa or dehydrating

her mouse and topping it off with corn meal. 

In the wild, your cat would be eating a high protein, high-moisture, meat/organ-based diet, with a moderate level of fat

 and with only  approximately 1-2 percent of her diet consisting of carbohydrates. The average dry food

contains 35-50 percent carbohydrate calories.  Some of the cheaper dry foods contain even higher levels. 

This is NOT the diet that Mother Nature intended for your cat to eat. 

Many canned foods, on the other hand, contain approximately less than 10 percent carbohydrates.

Please note that not all canned foods are suitably low in carbohydrates.  For instance, most of the Hill's Science Diet

 (over-the-counter) and the Hill's 'prescription' diets are very high in carbohydrates and are not foods that I would ever

 choose to feed.

Cats have a physiological decrease in the ability to utilize carbohydrates due to the lack of specific enzymatic pathways

 that are present in other mammals, and they lack a salivary enzyme called amylase.

Cats have no dietary need for carbohydrates and, more worrisome is the fact that a diet that is high in carbohydrates can be detrimental to their health as is explained below.

With this in mind, it is as illogical to feed a carnivore a steady diet of meat-flavored cereals as it would be to feed meat

 to a vegetarian like a horse or a cow, right?  So why are we continuing to feed our carnivores like herbivores? Why are

 we feeding such a species-inappropriate diet?  The answers are simple.  Grains/potatoes are cheap. 

 Dry food is convenient.  Affordability and convenience sells. 

However, is a carbohydrate-laden, plant-based, water-depleted dry food the best diet for our cats?  Absolutely not. 

Obligate carnivores are designed to eat meat/organs – not grains/vegetables - and they need to consume

 water with their food as explained below.

Cats Need Plenty of Water With Their Food

Opie's pictorial at Feline Urinary Tract Health is a 'must see' for any cat caregiver who insists on feeding dry food.

The first paragraph of that page is as follows:

If I could have the reader of this webpage take away just one word from this discussion, it would be "water."  If your cat is on a properly hydrated diet of 100% canned (or homemade) food - and no dry food - you stand a very good chance of never needing to read this webpage. 

Water is an extremely important nutrient that contributes to overall health in every living creature.  Couple this with the

 fact that cats do not have a very strong thirst drive when compared to other species, and you will understand

 why it is critical for them to ingest a water-rich diet. The cat's lack of a strong thirst drive can lead to low-level,

 chronic dehydration when dry food makes up the bulk of their diet especially if they have any level of kidney

 insufficiency. 

A cat's normal prey contains approximately 70 - 75 percent water.  Dry food only contains 5-10 percent water whereas

 canned foods contain  approximately 78 percent water.  Canned foods therefore more closely approximate the natural

 diet of the cat and are better suited to meet the cat’s water needs.

I hear the reader saying: "But my cat drinks a lot of water so dry food is just fine for him!" 

A cat consuming a predominantly dry food diet does drink more water than a cat consuming a canned food diet, but in

 the end, when water from all sources is added together (what’s in their diet plus what they drink), the cat on dry food

 consumes approximately half the amount of water compared with a cat eating canned food.

Water intake of cats on dry vs. canned food

Put another way, a cat on a canned food diet consumes approximately double the amount of water consumed by a cat

 eating dry food when all sources (food and water bowl) are considered.

This is a crucial point when one considers how common kidney and bladder problems are in the cat.

Think of canned food as 'flushing out' your cat's bladder several times each day. 

Please keep in mind that when your cat starts eating a more appropriately hydrated diet of canned food, his urine output

 will increase which is a very good thing for bladder health. 

Because of this increase in urine production, litter boxes need to be scooped more frequently or more boxes need to be added to the home. 

 

Dietary Habits - Don't Kill your Cat with Kindness"

# The source of this information is from "Nutrition of the Domestic Cat" by VH Menrath, BVSc, BAgr, MACVSc, as published

 in "Target" all breeds magazine of the Council of Federated Cat Clubs of Queensland and printed in an issue of "National

 Cat"

Your Cat is a True Carnivore

It is typical of the cat's independent nature that although it has been a companion of man for many centuries, it has

 generally refused to change its dietary habits. The cat has continued to hunt and provide for itself at every opportunity. In

 its natural state, the cat is a healthy and resourceful animal and as a hunter is second to none.

Recent nutritional studies have proved the cat to be a pure carnivore. It is unable to exist in its natural environment without

 a diet of tissues and organs of other animals. A wild cat eats all of its prey - hair, skin, flesh, bones and internal organs. 

Since the wild cat is a healthy animal with excellent teeth and bone structure, it has given us some clues in the search for a

good diet for our domesticated companions. Cat owners often unknowingly cause nutritional diseases in their animals in a

 quest to provide a balanced diet.

Research studies indicate the cat's dietary requirements are unique.

Protein

The cat has an extraordinarily high requirements for protein. An adult cat needs 20% of its total daily calorie intake to be

 protein. This is about five times that required by a dog. Kittens need 30% protein for normal growth and development.

The majority of the protein has to be of animal origin. If a cat is fed exclusively on tinned dog food, it loses weight gradually

 and eventually becomes irreversibly blind.

Vitamin A

The cat is unable to synthesize Vitamin A from the plant pigment carotene and has to eat the vitamin in its true form. Cats

 have a high Vitamin A requirement, but excessive doses are more disastrous then deficiencies.

Raw liver is an excellent source of Vitamin A but cats often become addicted to eating liver, which causes excess bone tissue

 to be laid down in joints. The Vitamin A poisoning eventually causes permanent stiffness of the legs and neck.

Low grade Vitamin A deficiencies occur quite commonly, especially in breeding catteries, where stress caused through viral

 respiratory infection or pregnancy results in a rapid depletion of Vitamin A stored in the liver. This not only results in

 prolonged recovery from illness but is a common cause of sterility, reduced litter size and birth defects such as flattened

 chests and cleft palates.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is required for normal bone growth and development. Cats with Vitamin D deficiency develop a disease known as

 rickets. Rickets in cats is virtually unknown in Australia. This is because cats need only minute quantities and are able to

 synthesize Vitamin D in their skin under the influence of sunlight.

Over-zealous Vitamin D supplements in the diet, through cod liver oil and Vitamin D/calcium mixtures - can cause

 mineralization of body organs. Mineralization in the heart, arteries and kidneys can lead to death.

Calcium

The most common man induced nutritional disease in young cats is bone disease due to a diet of too little calcium and

excessive amounts of phosphorus.

Growing kittens rapidly acquire a taste for raw beef and stubbornly refuse to eat anything else. Although beef is an excellent

 source of protein and B vitamins, it contains very little calcium and large quantities of phosphorus - just the right

 ingredients for serve bone weakness which can cause permanent spinal & pelvis deformaties

  Fats

Cats are not capable of utilising vegetable oils for all their requirements and need to have part of their daily diet as animal

 fat. Too much vegetable or fish oil can cause pancreatitis, known as 'yellow fat disease', where the fat pads and internal fat

 deposits become severely inflamed and painful.

Vitamin B

One of the most startling nutritional diseases in cats is due to thiamine or Vitamin B1 deficiency. Thiamine is essential for a

 healthy nervous system and raw meat and offal normally provide ample quantities of b vitamins. Yeast powder or tablets

 are also an excellent source of Vitamin B.

Thiamine deficiency can occur in two ways. The first is by feeding cooked meat and offal where the cooling process destroys

all the B vitamins. The second is to feed a large proportion of the diet as raw fish, especially deep sea fish which contains

enzymes that destroy thiamine.

Both these feeding methods will eventually lead to a disease called Chastek's paralysis which has neurological symptoms

 such as convulsions and paralysis - and finally permanent brain damage.

Summary

These unusual nutritional requirements of the domestic cat ensure it is extremely sensitive to man interfering with its

 natural diet. Ideally we should feed a diet of mice, rats, birds and other small prey - but this is impractical.

Cat breeders and owners are fortunate the pet food industry has studies their animals' needs to provide them with a wide

 range of good quality tinned and dried foods. These prepared foods are divided into two types - one provides a complete

 diet and the other must be supplemented with other foods.

It is important to distinguish between the two types. Vitamins and minerals are added to these prepared foods to prevent

 deficiencies.

So What Should you Feed your Cat?

bullet

 Do feed raw liver once or twice weekly

 

bullet

 Do feed Raw bones, such as large chicken bones and lamb chops bones regularly. Bones are an excellent source of

calcium which ensures healthy teeth and gums. Cats rarely get bones stuck in their throats.

 

bullet

 Do feed milk and other dairy products such as cheese - if your cat likes it. A few cats are allergic to milk which will cause

 diarrhea.

 

bullet

 Do feed a varied diet to young kittens to prevent them becoming finicky eaters as adults

 

bullet

 Don't feed one foodstuff only continuously - vary with foods such as tinned food, milk, cheese, fresh beef, fresh chicken or

 cooked fish.

 

bullet

 Don't feed dry food as a complete diet particular, to male cats. This could play a part in the formation of bladder crystals

 and subsequent bladder obstruction.

 

http://www.ozcatz.com/_themes/copy-of-blank/ablrule.gif

"Fat is Important to That Diet"

# by Dr. Truda M. Straede

The correct diet for your cat?

The correct diet for a cat is a matter of contention - and every economic competition! Every brand of pet food trumpets its

 value with many claiming to be complete or balanced. This may be true - but I have yet to meet a cat that doesn't become

 unutterably bored by the same flavoured can every day, and most are not interested in the second half of a tin opened the

 day before.

If biscuits are the dietary mainstay, more sustained enthusiasm is likely - some seem to be addicted to them completely,

 and then will not eat any raw food at all. This addiction to dry food is often caused by the basting of the dry biscuit with

 flavour enhances to encourage the cat to eat them.

The protein to fat ratio:

The content of these prepared foods is generally given as crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and natural sodium chloride.

 The protein to fat ratio is between 2:1 and 3:1, values well worth committing to memory when planning a non processed,

 more natural, and cheaper diet for your breeding colony or companion.

The most common mistake made by fussy cat owners and breeders is not providing sufficient fat in the diet. 

Proteins consist of amino acids made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur which can be used

 as building blocks to make cat proteins, or the excess can be used as an energy source. In this case the proteins are

 delaminated - nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur are stripped away, leaving the carbon, hydrogen and oxygen portions to

 be utilized in respiration.

This is wasteful as it takes a lot of energy to make proteins and is an extra strain on the kidneys, which have to excrete the

 unused material.

The secret:

The secret is to provide only the growth and repair requirements as proteins, and the energy source as some less complex

 form of carbon hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates immediately spring to mind, but cats are carnivores so their guts are

 not able to utilize complex carbohydrates such as cereal and bread with any efficiency - they are designed to use the carbon

 hydrogen oxygen complex which naturally accompanies protein - fat.

How best to provide this fat?

How to provide this fat may cause a bit of head scratching - but don't despair, there are some simple and very palatable

 answers.

Don't buy best mince because it has a low fat content. Cheaper human consumption mince or pet lines are a better and

 cheaper proposition.

Chicken mince is sometimes fatty, but it is hard to tell by looking. Ask about the source, or boil a small amount until well

cooked, then allow to cool overnight in the fridge - the fat content will quickly be revealed.

Kangaroo mince is extremely low in fat, and is unsuitable as a foundation diet unless adequately fat enhanced. Fat from the

 dripping from your roast, from cheap fatty lamb breasts - which can then be sliced into rib sections and served with bone to

 entranced cats - or butchers' lard can be used.

I cut a portion of set fat off the block, then chop it up finely then mix it through a mince mixture. Don't forget that the fat

 should be stored in the fridge, and roast dripping should be used with its jelly within a few days.

Other fat sources are on pieces of meat themselves, particularly hearts, which can be chopped up so that most sections

 have some fat on them. Anything trimmed off your own meat should not be wasted. A fatty but cheap cut of lamb is more

 economic if you give the fat trimmings to the cats.

If you have a food processor you can buy fresh suet. Shred and store it in small quantities in the freezer for up to three months.

Cheese is excellent, but a bit of a treat and is perhaps more suited to the weanling kitten than adults. Plain or Vanilla

yoghurt can be added to a mince mixture but no more than a level teaspoon per cat. Yoghurt makes the mixture a bit odd

 by the third night and cats won't eat it - so don't add it if you are making up a mince mixture for a few days ahead. It

should be added fresh at each meal and also with cheese..

Note: Jalna yoghurt is our favorite here as it is naturally prepared with no thickeners or additives added.

Older cats:

Older cats and those with dicey kidneys, need a lower protein diet. White meat - fish, chicken, pork - with bulk, such as

 cooked rice or oats can be mixed when cold, with fat prepared as suggested. Offer a saucer of cream, or a cheese snack

, and those fatty sliced roasted lamb breasts are all very acceptable. These make the cat feel full, lively and maintain its

 condition, but do not overtax its kidneys.

Cats in poor condition:

A cat in poor condition, perhaps recovering from a long illness, or simply having reared a large litter kittens, will benefit

 from having as much as it likes to eat with about half of this being some form of fat. Unless the cat has lost muscle mass, it

 really needs to lay down fat reserves it used up in its recent endeavours. To supply this as primarily protein is not only

 energy inefficient, and expensive, but also works kidneys very hard. As the causes of the poor condition probably also put

extra strain on the kidneys, this recovery time is an opportunity to allow them to recuperate.

Cats with a skin condition:

A cat which suffers from skin conditions, such as dry and scaly patches in the fur, or cracked skin on noses and paw pads

 may have some kind bacterial or fungal infection which will respond to suitable medication. The underlying cause of such a

 problem, however, may lie in the skin itself, so that medication only clears up the secondary infections.

To maintain the restored health of the skin and to improve the coat's lustre, examine the diet for its fat content, and amend

if necessary.

I find that a fatty diet, in combination with the addition of heavy metals, particularly zinc (in the form Keylomin Organic)

 reduces allergy type skin problems. You will also find that some Devon Rex kittens/Cats react to dry biscuits causing what

 we call "Devon Bumps", like mosquito bites usually on top of the head and sometimes appear on the neck, remove all dry

 food, increase the fat content of their food and it is resolved within 2 to 3 days.

Summary:

So remember, fat for cats for energy will save your pocket, is good for their skin and conserves their kidneys.

Renal failure in cats is still one of the main causes of death, so no dry food and little Carbohydrates. Back to a natural diet

 as close as we can provide.

 


Talk to the Animals, T.V. Show featured "Precious" and the Singapura Breed, see the link to the story about "Precious"

Mangala and Myruna Cats - Enchanting Singa's   


Singapura's Imported from America & England:

We are on the countdown now for our 2 new girls & a male coming from America, three new USA kids  will arrive in Australia in Jan 2009, where they will have to do 30 days quarantine before coming home to us. Due to land on Feb 4th 2009

English Babes have now arrived, a male and a female, Kiku & Java

Great excitement and we are counting the days!!


     

visit tracker on tumblr

"Where Beauty & Enchantment are Created"

Contact :: Fiona or Email:: mangala@dcsi.net.au 

Phone :  03 5678 8311  International : +61 3 5678 8311

Please Note:: We unfortunately do not have mobile reception at the Cattery.

Copyright © 2008 Mangala & Myruna Katzs   Webmaster : Fiona Stokes
Last modified: September 21, 2016